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On 17 June, the IAAF Council held an extraordinary meeting "principally to give the Russian Athletics Federation (RusAF) a further opportunity to satisfy the Reinstatement Conditions for IAAF Membership." [49] A task force chaired by Rune Andersen recommended against reinstating Russia after reporting that criteria had not been met and that there were "detailed allegations, which are already partly substantiated, that the Russian authorities, far from supporting the anti-doping effort, have in fact orchestrated systematic doping and the covering up of adverse analytical findings." [49] The IAAF voted unanimously to uphold its ban. [50]

Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analyses of in vivo studies showed that human Rooibos consumption increased cortisone plasma levels in males (p = ) and reduced cortisol:cortisone ratios in males and females (p = ) at risk for cardiovascular disease. In rats, corticosterone (CORT) (p = ) and deoxycorticosterone (p = ) levels as well as the CORT:testosterone ratio (p = ) decreased following Rooibos consumption. The inactivation of cortisol was investigated in vitro by expressing 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) and type 2 (11βHSD2) in CHO-K1 cells. Rooibos inhibited 11βHSD1, which resulted in a significant reduction in the cortisol:cortisone ratio (p < ). No significant effect was detected on 11βHSD2. In vitro studies in adrenal H295R cells showed that Rooibos and rutin, one of the more stable flavonoid compounds present in Rooibos, significantly reduced the levels of cortisol and CORT in cells stimulated with forskolin to mimic a stress response.

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