Influenza steroid treatment

There have been attempts to link squalene to Gulf War Syndrome mainly due to the idea that squalene might have been present in an anthrax vaccine given to some military personnel during the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Studies found that deployed Persian Gulf War Syndrome patients are significantly more likely to have antibodies to squalene (95 percent) than asymptomatic Gulf War veterans (0 percent; p<.001). [20] [21] The first of these published results concludes with the following statement: "It is important to note that our laboratory-based investigations do not establish that squalene was added as adjuvant to any vaccine used in military or other personnel who served in the Persian Gulf War era." The second publication, however, links the incidence of anti-squalene antibodies and Gulf War Syndrome to five specific lots of vaccine. Furthermore, they cite results of 1999 testing by the . Food and Drug Administration which found these specific lots of vaccine to contain squalene. [22] In response to these results, a committee of the US Institute of Medicine stated that "The committee does not regard this study as providing evidence that the investigators have successfully measured antibodies to squalene", since the authors did not perform the normal scientific controls needed to show that their test was specific to anti-squalene antibodies. [23] It has also been determined that the anthrax vaccines given to those US military personnel did not use squalene as an adjuvant. [24] [25] [26] The vaccines were also tested for squalene, and none was detected with standard methods. [27] Another method found no squalene in 37 of the 38 lots tested. One lot contained traces of squalene, at less than ten parts per billion, which is about one-thirtieth the level found in human blood. [28] The FDA stated that this trace of squalene probably came from a fingerprint, since the oils on human skin contain enough squalene to send these extremely sensitive tests "off the chart". [29]

Infection induced increases in the levels of microRNA (miRNA)-21 (miR-21) expression in the lung during SSIAAD, whereas expression of the miR-21 target phosphatase and tensin homolog was reduced. This was associated with an increase in levels of phosphorylated Akt, an indicator of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, and decreased nuclear histone deacetylase (HDAC)2 levels. Treatment with an miR-21-specific antagomir (Ant-21) increased phosphatase and tensin homolog levels. Treatment with Ant-21, or the pan-PI3K inhibitor LY294002, reduced PI3K activity and restored HDAC2 levels. This led to suppression of airway hyperresponsiveness and restored steroid sensitivity to allergic airway disease. These observations were replicated with SSIAAD associated with 4 different pathogens.

Perhaps the most mysterious feature of epidemic influenza is its remarkable and recurrent seasonality – wintertime surfeit and summertime scarcity – a feature first explored in detail by R. Edgar Hope-Simpson, the British general practitioner and self-educated epidemiologist. After his celebrated discoveries of the cause of shingles [ 1 ] and the latency of varicella [ 2 ], Hope-Simpson dedicated much of the rest of his working life to the epidemiology of influenza. He believed that discovering the cause of influenza's seasonality would ‘provide the key to understanding most of the influenzal problems confronting us’ [ 3 ].

NACI has concluded that egg allergic individuals may be vaccinated against influenza using inactivated TIV and QIV without a prior influenza vaccine skin test and with the full dose. The vaccine may be given in any settings where vaccines are routinely administered (see section V for details). However, immunizers administering vaccine should be prepared for and have the necessary equipment to respond to a vaccine emergency at all times. LAIV should not be given to egg allergic individuals, as egg allergy has not yet been studied for LAIV. There are additional contraindications for LAIV (see Contraindications in section II for details).

Influenza steroid treatment

influenza steroid treatment

NACI has concluded that egg allergic individuals may be vaccinated against influenza using inactivated TIV and QIV without a prior influenza vaccine skin test and with the full dose. The vaccine may be given in any settings where vaccines are routinely administered (see section V for details). However, immunizers administering vaccine should be prepared for and have the necessary equipment to respond to a vaccine emergency at all times. LAIV should not be given to egg allergic individuals, as egg allergy has not yet been studied for LAIV. There are additional contraindications for LAIV (see Contraindications in section II for details).

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