Although all . citizens are also . nationals, the reverse is not true. As specified in 8 . § 1408 , a person whose only connection to the . is through birth in an outlying possession (which is defined in 8 . § 1101 as American Samoa and Swains Island , the latter of which is administered as part of American Samoa), or through descent from a person so born, acquires . nationality but not . citizenship. This was formerly the case in only four other current or former . overseas possessions . 
On March 1, 1956, the National People's Army (Nationale Volksarmee – NVA) was officially created by transferring the existing paramilitary units of the People's Police to the NVA. The new army was officially under the leadership of the SED and under the direction of the newly created Ministry for National Defense. Initially, the NVA was to be staffed by volunteers only, but in 1962, when recruitment presented increasing difficulties for the SED and its support organizations, conscription was introduced. Before the construction of the Berlin Wall, conscription had been seen as impossible to enforce.